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Developing a Perfomance Appraisal System - Essay Example Federal and state laws have added to the complexity and difficulty of appraisal plans. Criteria for compliance with equal employment opportunity laws are stringent. Management needs to design and operate its appraisal systems carefully in order to comply with these laws. A generation ago, appraisal programs tended to emphasize employee traits, deficiencies, and abilities, but modern appraisal philosophy emphasizes present performance and future goals. Modern philosophy also stresses employee participation in mutually setting goals with the supervisor and knowledge of results. Thus the hallmarks of modern appraisal philosophy are as follows: 2. Focus on goals or objectives - as the discussion of MBO shows, employees need to have a clear idea of what they are supposed to be doing and the priorities among their tasks; as the saying goes," If you know where you want to go, you are more likely to get there." 3. Mutual goal setting within supervisor and employee - this is the belief the people will work harder for goals or objectives that they have participated in setting. Among their desires are perform a worthwhile task, share in a group effort, share in setting their objectives, share in the rewards of their efforts and continue personal growth. The (Theory Y) assumption is that people want to satisfy some of their needs through work and that they will do if management will provide them with a supportive environment. 4. Clarification of behavioral expectations - this is often done via a behavioral anchored rating scale (BARS), which provides the employee and the manager with concrete examples of various levels of behaviors. Brief descriptions of outstanding, very good, acceptable, below average and unacceptable behaviors are specified for each major dimension of a job, thuis cueing the employee in advance regarding the organization's expectations. BARS helps reduce manager's tendency to focus on attitudes, personality, and nquirks of an employee and shift emphasis toward productive behaviors. 5. Extensive Feedback Systems - employees can fine-tune their performance better if they know how they are doing in the eyes of the organization. Most organizational appraisal systems requires supervisors to assess employees on various aspects of their productivity, behavior, and or personal traits. Examples of these three dimensions include quality of work and quantity of output, attendance and initiative and general attitude. Many appraisal systems also point toward both historical performance and the individual's potential for growth and advancement. The actual forms and procedures used for assessing this information vary widely. Some organizations ask supervisors to write essays describing the employee's performance; others recommend that they accumulate a record of incidents both positive and negative; mant firms use various types of graphic rating scales that grade employees on A-B-C-D-E or 1-2-3-4-5 systems. Regardless of the system used, the assessment is then communicated to the employee through the appraisal interview. This is a session
U.S.A. PATRIOT Act, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, and the Future of Domestic Intelligence - Essay Example
The attacks demolished the world trade center, which was regarded as a unique nucleus of international trade established in New York City, and took away 2,749 innocent lives. The attacks shook the pillars of the national security of United States of America and questioned the operation and functioning of the intelligence of the country. Following the day of attack, President George Bush immediately declared war on terrorism with his speech, â€œThe United States of America will use all our resources to conquer this enemyâ€ (Kam & Wong, 2006, p. 380). Later, on investigation it was revealed that two of the terrorist pilots gained flying training at the Huffman Aviation International in Venice, Florida, in September 2000. These men entered the United States of America on a visitorâ€™s visa. It was further analyzed that the applications of these men were changed from the visitor to those of vocational students which were processed by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Another pilot infiltrated the country on October 9, 2000 with an F-1 student visa for the purpose of studying English at English as a second language (ESL) center in California, USA. In this case it was also revealed that the student never attended the institute and the institute never reported about the missing student.
With this background information it could be said that the country was suffering from inefficient intelligence operation and management. In fact legitimate questions arose regarding the intelligence operation of the nation. In the aftermath of the 9/11 disaster, America witnessed the tightening of the trajectories of homeland security and enforcement of amended and new laws with stricter policies towards immigration and emigration. But it has been also questioned as to what extent the laws were feasible in the context of the protection of the civil
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